• Previous work-in the form of archive PDF:
  • The DISCOURSE of Art and scientific Books, ASP in Wrocław, no. 12/2011 ISSN 1733-1728, "the role of semantic fields in the image"


The text, entitled "the role of semantic fields in the image" applies to both basic and derived, more specific issues inherent in the concept of character, including mainly the graphic gesture used in the image. It is counterintuitive that indicates when freely plotted on a plane can be interpreted in terms of a character iconic or contractual, and when in terms of a symbol. In addition, what conditions should arise to this interpretation carried out in space any of these concepts. The text also reveals the importance and significance of the same character is also a graphic gesture. Sho character, including around the semantic and the specific nature of this semantic fields, namely around.

In addition, that the whole of the development was established on the basis of the piece written by me, thesis 2010, bearing the title: "record is a gesture as a character and symbol in the image".


The role of semantic fields in the image

Over the centuries of human thought many times there have been attempts to define the character. The problems associated with this concept as well as a whole range of derived specific issues occupied the minds of many outstanding experts – representatives of the various fields of Science: philosophers, psychologists, semiologów, or psychografologów; but also this art theorists, as well as the same creators. Essential, however, seems to be the fact that many of them had mostly character analysis without taking into account the environment in which it was, or the situation in which he played. Meanwhile, what should be emphasized is the character takes on a full, or the proper meaning when, and only when, the account shall also be taken of its surroundings. In other words the semantics of a character is not only its properties, but also certain elements of its environment[1]. Mieczyslaw Wallis, those elements of the environment characters, współokreślające its importance, called <okolem znaku="">>.</okolem> A distinction is made between three types of such approximate "<okole semantyczne="">> or environment of other characters, which usually is called the context; <okole pragmatyczne="">> or weave and steps, in which the character is involved, a situation in which it occurs.</okole> </okole> Around the pragmatic spoken language return should be This is what we usually call accompanying <ekspresją>>-intonation of voice, strength and pace of speaking, facial expression and gesture.</ekspresją> The third type of this Sho is <okole fizyczne="">>-elements of the environment, in which the character is-permanently or temporarily, which współokreślają its importance. " Actu[2]ally, each character is surrounded by listed okolami-współokreślającymi in varying degrees of its importance.</okole>

In images-the works of painting-around function and types of this approximate fully the whole anturaż, in which the graphic gesture occurs – form, composition, coloring, use gestures such as graphics. in the Convention text, therefore, and in the vicinity of individual characters-gestures. This role is also the emotion that accompanies the posing of specific traces of gestures, expression, the press, the choice of tools, form or the Convention of the image itself. "The same Word may for example. have different meanings, depending on the sentence to what occurs, depending on the age, country, social environment, and so on. Depending on who, when and where it says (the so-called. "occasional returns"), under what circumstances and in what environment. "[3]

The character can therefore call in the customers referred to the thought of the other
than he himself, both with some of its properties, as well as via a okolu.

One of the special cases mentioned previously around semantic (i.e. context) is "semantic field". M. Wallis explains that it is[…] "such an arrangement is a spatial or temporal, or yet another in which a character takes on different meanings depending on what he or some of its elements are in this system.[4]" In other words, the meaning of a sign depends not only on its shape and the adjacent characters, but also from what he, or some of its members occupy in the layout[5].

Also in the work of painting the importance of characters – graphical gestures, their interpretation, and interpretation of the entire system, can change, sometimes radically, depending on the position of the graphic gesture across the image plane. Important it seems here grafologiczna interpretation of the position of individual gestures in a given system, as well as the symbolic dimension especially automatic selection spots for a graphic gesture on the plane – in this case, the image. It should also, and at this point mention the hypothetical existence of a particular language, call pozaludzkiego, as well as the transmission which could be expressed in this language – especially in the paratekstualnych compositions. Looking at the graphic gesture and its position in the context of the existence of such a language and communication, and in this case, the place of the gesture seems to play a significant role. If the team automatically outlined graphic gestures or a single gesture we will interpret in terms of a particular and specific text, the message that is contained in this text and its impact-we can assume-to some extent, is subject to and conditional upon the position of the data components of the "text" or gestures. Therefore, the same character means something different in different parts of the image and you can say, whether the choice of this location automatically, or with the participation of the will of the author. Influence of subconscious mind for rational and conscious choices of man is undeniable. informed choices, in this case, the space for your gesture, also opens a wide field of analysis for graphologists.

Other examples of semantic fields can be: decimal or szóstkowy, or n-mid in arithmetic, in which digit shifted one position to the left gains value ten or six, or n times. The next field is the word order in the sentence the analytical language that can change substantially their meaning, or deny it at all. An example of a semantic field was also <pole>> Heraldic Shield in Heraldry medieval.</pole> They were usually into several parts: two, four, or nine, each of which had its name and among which there was specified, strict hierarchy. Typically, when broken down into nine parts Center box was the most privileged and najdostojniejsze. It was usually the coat of arms of paternity leave.

A variety of semantic fields can be found also in the painting, sculpture and medieval architecture. Basically you can specify them as fields <góra –="" dół="">>, <środek –="" boki="">>, <strona prawa="" –="" strona="" lewa="">>, <południe –="" północ="">>, <wschód –="" zachód="">>, <głębia –="" powierzchnia="">>.</głębia> </wschód> </południe> </strona> </środek> </gór[6]a> In the art of the medieval period there was all the symbol code associated also with space and umiejscawianiem of individual elements, their hierarchy, in that space, whether in painting or architecture. Created were even entire book containing lists of such codes.

All of these semantic fields can be divided into two groups. In the first of them placed a sign in a field współokreśla its importance, but it is not wartościującego. In the second group are for example. field coats or field medieval art, in which mark in a particular field is an expression evaluation, says more or less value, or qualify them as positive or negative. Paintings are eligible for one group or the other, or both at the same time.

As you can see-character (including a graphic gesture), not to be seen as a solitary element but as Pierre Giraud-you must "recognise it in its […]various relationships with the other characters." In additi[7]on, that in our case, the question is not only about the characters, especially the familiar language systems, but also of the whole spectrum of iconic characters.

In the light of what so far has been said about the role of semantic fields and their impact on the importance of the same character, including gestures in paint compositions, it seems appropriate that in principle every trace of human gesture, made in a specified field or space, is semantic. For psychologists, psychiatrists, philosophers, especially this group of experts dealing with the grafizmem man, the value of semantic fields and their impact on the same character-its importance, is almost essential. To take into account this aspect during analysis (eg. Graphology) gives you a chance to get a fuller picture of the person, her personality, certain and particular its tendencies, and in general the whole condition. In addition, individual traces are also the nature of the letters of this specific and unique language, which may be the whole "Interior" man, his personality, temperament and spirituality.


Graphic gesture associated with the letter

The first and essential for induced image automatically outlined gestures in works of painting-particularly those of a paratekstualnym-is the thought of a mysterious and incomprehensible writing. Looking at the thought of writing. What is the subject? Well, the whole thing takes place in the sphere of associations and they seem to be here. Custom and agreement shall designate here range making the Association. "From the point of view of psychological character makes the recipient think about, other than himself, thanks to the combination by the contact. However, it is not the individual, any loose association, but the Association highlighted, established by usage in a particular social group. " Parat[8]ekstualne compositions evoke thought and Association-in a certain group of people-about writing and letter, as for that group of people graphic gestures used in such compositions, have characteristics that classify them in these associations as letters, and the whole as a text written in some – though unknown-system. The custom prevailing in the group, is associating certain shapes and strings the shapes of letters, text and writing. These paintings evoke an association letter, though not by letter in the conventional sense. You can say that for a certain group is a letter, although not understood in the traditional sense, is incomprehensible or not understand or read with conventional methods. Collections of graphic gestures means therefore, or mean writing and graphic gestures mean or mean letters as cause the thought of writing and letter. Of course, it is a gesture of graphical used in a specific configuration and specified semantic okolu referred to previously.

Remember also that the degree of knowledge plays a very important role in the conscious adoption of the mark (a graphic gesture), which in this case thought bringing it to the shape of the letters and the Association (the concept of the letter of understanding it and imagine) with the observed gesture. Heritage, intellect, and so on. they have their effect as well: "a strong styling of the mark, by its limitations helps you locate the forms existing in subconscious mind".[9] Gesture graphic used in a specific, particular context statement and anturażu (specific okole semantic), ceases to be only a gesture. He loses then your reference the nature and becomes the letter, as it were, a bunch of its meanings.

Essential here is also that strings graphic gestures in terms of the letter can also be dependent on the environment. On the origin of ideas decide: both lines and spots, as the recipient sees, but also his knowledge of the traditions and conventions, attitudes perceptive-intellectual, prevailing in the social environment and at a given age. The study of perceptual psychology, especially those carried out in recent years, more and more completely and unambiguously specify the setting here[10]. It is known that the transition for some insights, to some perceptions is effected not only by simple association by resemblance.


Iconic characters-their circle, and graphic gestures

Ikonicznymi characters are any kind of likeness, in the full sense of the word. These are the images of painting, sculpting, graphics, photo, movie, so consistently well as likenesses of letters, images of all kinds of texts, etc. One of the first character letter generally is considered <pismo obrazkowe="">> (piktografia), consisting mostly of simplified character iconic.</pismo> In the theatrical shows we call them also found both the same body actors and their costumes, facial expressions and movements, also the decoration. Many of the dances is iconic. "Imaging dances" for example. imitating the movements of the animals.

Iconic items, especially in the form of gestures which imitate certain activities, are in the practices of magic, ceremonial, religious, children's games. Therefore the same execution gesture (gesture, but not yet a gesture-though and he also) are classified as iconic character. In addition to the realm of iconic characters also encounter visual auditory sphere. All kinds of phrases onomatopeiczne-or dźwiękonaśladowcze-in ethnic languages, serve as elements of the iconic. Are among the English words: "boom", "buch", "Wham", "Snip"; or that mimic the voices of various animals such as: "Meow", "kukuryku"; as well as words such as. the word Polish "cuckoo" and the Latin word "cuculus", which are contractual, iconic characters by adding the appropriate for your language (the suffix).

"Signs of the contractual self can represent objects: 1. perceived sensually and those that are not perceived sensually, physically and mentally, and General, concrete and abstract. While the iconic characters can represent only items perceived sensually (visually or hearing-impaired). "[11]


3.2. The transformation of graphic gestures of iconic signs contractual

As mentioned previously a simple gesture can be classified as the iconic character. As a result of the use of it in a specific configuration, as well as associations, which also already mentioned, graphic gestures collaborating on specific paintings can lose its iconic character and become contractual marks. "Under the Ordinance or agreement marks the iconic, especially diagrams, can function in a context as the contractual characters." S[12]chemes, functioning as a contractual characters eg. simplified drawing of the beds in the timetable, in turn, is replaced by the expression <wagon sypialny="">>, lost sometimes your iconic nature and become contractual marks.</wagon> In the case of records consisting of strings of automatic graphic gestures, you can talk about some kind of schematyzacji or her attempt. Form of automatic characters expressing such as. a specific personality trait, is subjected to a transformation, as a result of which takes the form of a similar in appearance to the font or the seal and this suggests the standard already by someone it is shape associated with this, which further points to the contractual nature of the graphic gesture, also made automatically. The appearance of the stamp or the font becomes so if typographical equivalent to freely defined. However, the same gesture graphic-automatic-looking from a different point of view-has somewhat already schematic nature. Is a kind of letter of the previously mentioned, the hypothetical <pozaludzkiego pisma="">>, as well as the schema of the same characteristics for example.</pozaludzkiego> personality.

Another aspect of significant for how to read and interpret gestures in the picture graphics teams also in terms of the text is the fact that to those teams we gestures attitude or asemantyczną, so treat them as a subject, not a sign, or the attitude of semantic, so treat them as a character. When we do against them attitude of asemantyczną, then they become only nothing significant pattern. However, when we do against them attitude can be interpreted and semantic <odczytywać>> on many levels, including in terms of letter or symbol, and the team of gestures in terms of Scripture or text.</odczytywać> It should be added that the painting including compositions paratekstualne, which can be interpreted in many ways, are, in a sense, analogies to the homonymous words in the field of language characters. "[…]the direction of modern art, for which the name utarła <sztuki optycznej="">> (op-art) operates sometimes wieloznacznościami of this type.</sztuki> In this connection, attention was also given to wildcard handling patterns in ancient mosaics. "[13]


The value of the informational character iconic

The value of the informational graphic gestures used in the image

We already know that between the iconic, and the representative of the
-the subject of that iconic sign, but also the sign of the contractual stand alone represents the (otherwise the subject represented) there is a similarity in appearance. It is the similarity of layout of items – line, colour stains, solids, tones, sometimes in addition to the similarity of the elements themselves. This resemblance of iconic character can read recipient with properties (specific characteristics) of his reprezentantu. In other words can have a value. Similarly, the iconic gesture graphic sign as a
-shows for example. a specific form of expression, and also personality traits also tells us about a certain feature of the nature of the person performing that gesture.
It is, or it can also be part of the singular letter which repeatedly
was already mentioned. It illustrates the sort of unique, a different letter, such
that has all of the features of classifying it as an object which is a letter. You can say that the image is formed on the basis of only some of its features that classify as such. Continuing the letter composition paratekstualnych illustrates these certain characteristics, and by what, in a sense, the very idea. Therefore, when considering the properties showing the graphic gesture, in this respect, it can be concluded that it has value. You should only add, that the degree of similarity of the signs to his reprezentantu, to the subject matter represented in individual cases, so information value and iconic characters will also be different.


The image of the sacred contained in the "Records" and gesture graphics

Strong suggestive characters iconic led many Nations to identifying all kinds of likenesses of deities to them, and, in consequence, to donate them. In fear of the so-called. idolatry, as is well known, especially in some monotheistic religions for example. Judaism, or islam, is banned from performing the likenesses of human or animal form, and this consequently led to the total elimination of their art, especially with religious art. As regards this aspect to the automatic gestures in paint compositions, including the nature of the paratekstualnym and trying to find though, or any analogies, you might want to invade a reflection and hypothesis. Well, it can be assumed that the gesture-if auto-save is to some extent touches, but in a slightly different way, imaging of what say is although a part of the divine nature. The whole theology of monotheistic religions including Christian specifies the sacred human as belonging to God and the Church by him, that contains His living image. Man is the image of God. We also know that in a simple gesture, including graphics, can take cover and contain information on the "inside" the man performing the gesture, so similarly sacred space and also of the same man. Therefore, hypothetically it is possible that the compositions created with graphic gestures-automatic and individual graphic gestures contained in them, in a sense, provide us-of course in a way niedosłowny-information also about the space of God himself, so also and his image.


The symbol. Gesture graphic as a symbol

The term <symbol>> lies one of the most ambiguous terms of philosophy, aesthetics and art theory.</symbol> He was variously understood and variously interpreted, even so widely that the symbol was considered each creation cultur[14]e. This is what some took to be a symbol of others called the sign and, by analogy, what for some was a symbol for the second contractual character (Janina Kotarbińska). I lean towards the meaning of the term <symbol>>-with the rest of the like other terms also-in the sense in which he and uses their Mieczyslaw Wallis.</symbol> The symbol in its meaning "is[…] the subject of spostrzegany, existing in nature, or manufactured or used by humans and with the ability to call in the customers thought about the subject other than himself, not on the basis of similarity, as the sign of the iconic, and not on the basis of custom or agreement, as the sign, but on the basis of a certain analogy between him and that the subject, often an obvious and difficult far analogues." For example, the l[15]ion could call in the customers thought of strength or męstwie, thus it can be for the receiver symbol of strength or courage. Between the lion and courage or strength there is similarity in appearance, or also the bond between them is not only custom or contract. A lion can not in this case, replace the for example. mosquito, that symbol of strength or courage rather can not be. As Wallis, symbols can be defined by custom or contract, they are approaching the characters (symbols) or may be uncertain, shaky (we call them the symbols nieustalonymi). Continuing, the symbol can be represented using the character iconic or mentioned or described, using the characters. In Visual art, especially in painting or sculpture, we meet not only symbols, but with ikonicznymi symbols.

In contrast to a character, who is always manufactured or used by a certain essence of the living, the symbol can be manufactured or used by a certain essence of living or not. "The mark is usually feature trojaką: represents a subject other than himself (the representative), calls the idea of the (communicative) and expresses the thought of its manufacturer or (expressive). The symbol has a representative function and communicative. Expressive function is only when it is the product of a living being, a symptom of someone's psyche "[16]. Gesture graphic in the image is a work of painting as the most expressive function. "According to this view, symbols are not trademarks. They are, however, some common features with the characters. Are intermediate between the signs and <nieznakami>between the semantic objects and items > asemantycznymi. " Seweryn[17]a Wysłouch while in their studies-as a result of a slightly different from the one presented so far (although in my opinion, dopowiadającego and supplementary) understand the concept of iconic character-builds also the meaning of the symbol.</nieznakami> It states that no resemblance to a certain reprezentantu, but Convention dictates the iconicity of the character. According to her, "to talk about an iconic character, it is necessary to give the item a semantic function <wskazania na="">>, <odwzorowywania>>, and this mapping is carried out not on the basis of the similarities, but is based on the adopted by the sender and receiver of the Convention." Also the considerations[18] of Umberto Eco on the definition of the iconic character developed in a similar way.</odwzorowywania> </wskazania> The author of this reflect their role of reconnaissance code and graphic code[19]s.

Seweryna Wysłouch writes […]"what intuitively we refer to as the similarity is in fact referred to the Convention to give or receive Convention. These observations by the fact that the similarity of the drawing and the model are not able to read small children and people who are canons of European art "j[…].[20] Lalewicz, on the other hand, according to s. Wysłouch, pro[…]ved" that iconic sign shows only indirectly, is equipped with only the features necessary, necessary for the identification of the subject[21]. " "The iconic Sign with lines drawn on the plane only designates the subject by referring to certain conventions and to the knowledge of the recipient. This approach misses the traditional gap between the iconic and symbolic character. " "the ic[22]on[…]ic sign can represent a broader whole, suggest the wild and abstract <plan treści="">> and therefore can become a symbol of the understood as specific <interdyscyplinarna>> Figure, that is not a unit of natural language lexicon, but it was secondarily fabricated."</interdyscyplinarna> </plan>[23]

Ending I would like to point out one important aspect, namely the so-called. "making text" item and processes that accompanied, causing this that stops it function as an instrumental and takes on meanings also symbolic. The Chair is subject to daily use, but when properly will feature-rich, throne, that it is a symbol of power. To the subject served as a symbol, it must be extracted from the natural environment and be specifically equipped. Following this line of reasoning sign-gesture graphic used for example. in the letter, the image becomes a symbol when he starts something more in addition mean. Becomes utekstowiony, zsemiotyzowany, and so has these features that add him meanings and values for example. its diversity, niewyjaśnialność or mystery. "Indeed, the Symbol may arise and function only as a zsemiotyzowany object or fragment of the subject or his image, and his name." In addition, t[24]he graphic gesture means the characteristics of the "inner man" (theology), as well as its entire development, spiritual health, physical predisposition, cultural baggage of experience. It is therefore the most authentic "letter". Talking about the characteristics of the individual person, but also about those universal, common to a certain group of people, and perhaps and for each. It is a symbol of that area existing in man – in particular by theologians-is referred to the Foundation of humanity.



The mechanism of the formation of the symbol

The conditions of transformation of character iconic-graphic gesture-a symbol

There are four ways, what distinguishes Seweryna Wysłouch, initiating the process of transforming the iconic character in the symbol. The first one is called. Special "isolation" of the subject, breaking out it from the natural context. The isolation of a single graphic gesture causes cease to be mere automatically definite trace of the plane. By calling him special attention and as a result of the isolation of the graphic gesture takes on the weight of a symbol, so additional values and meanings. Now this is no ordinary gesture, used in the paratekstualnej of the Convention, it becomes the letter-a mysterious, suggesting and indicating the existence of some hidden information, brings anxiety, intrigued, stimulates the desire to decipher and read it. Another type of such a specification, especially in images of a paratekstualnym can be extraction and transformation in the seal or the font a a single gesture or gestures-as was mentioned earlier.

The next most common and most important method, which writes Wysłouch, transform the iconic character in the symbol, is such a "clash" with other characters, which creates a significant whole. In other words, placing the character in a specific context causes it takes on the value of the symbol. The previously mentioned also. okolu semantic, as well as of a special kind of Sho, namely about the semantic field and their impact on the importance of character. The terms of these speaks m. Wallis in their studies. S. Wysłouch while indicates that both okole semantic and semantic field can have a significant impact on the transformation of the iconic character in the symbol. Clash of the graphic gesture or gestures with their environment, with the appropriate form of image surrounding the gesture-let's call the whole anturażem-colour, form, texture, structure, coexistence with other characters, finally placing it in a specific Convention environment. This collision creates a whole a significant and calls in the customers mind, in which the associate a graphic gesture of something symbolizing the sign with a symbol, for example. with a letter.  Often we have to deal with symbols created with a particular configuration completely neutral character iconic. A graphic gesture and some environment need not entail symbolic, complicated meanings, but in combination they acquire a rank symbol. This configuration and of course the adoption of semantic attitude, become the key to becoming, even simple characters, symbols. "Chopin poster Trepkowskiego (1955) compiled were two characters: Willow standing in an empty landscape and, at the bottom is schematically drawn keyboard. Combination of these characters <znaczy>> something more than 'pejzaż ' and ' music ', symbolizes the Polish lineage and atmosphere of Chopin's music. "</znaczy>[25]

As the third is listed by s. Wysłouch method, in which the iconic character can become a symbol, as a result of the deformation. "Deformation of the reference mark signals a character receives a viewer, not a mere representation of it, tells him to look for symbolic meanin[26]gs." By applying the gesture, its shape, to a simplified almost piktogramowej forms (eg. the seal), same automatic gesture graphic is a slight deformation, however, to read it clearly lettering context (typography). It seems that is part of a specific, previously standard, and by what someone (the observer) already known alphabet is a language code, or architecture – which was also mentioned. The possibility of this kind of deformation and transformation, as you can guess, is very much, so much, as for example. There are numerous variations of the typeface in different alphabets and Moreover this amount of constantly increasing, depending on the needs and context of use of the typeface. Of course, the converted graphic gesture ceases to be free, automatic gesture, however, a significant part of the original shape of the preserves (the so-called. core), and a bunch of, let's say the standard of character, combined with loose flange graphic gesture, also additional meanings and spotęgowanego Word.

Another, the fourth in the order, a way of transforming the iconic character in the symbol-cited by s. Wysłouch-is marking it "comment", "language that rep[…]eals references, with the result that the character loses the character of the unit and becomes wild, directs attention to General problems, often abstract[27]." Marking images titles: "record", as well as subheadings, eg. "Inscription" or "Epitaph" (Kulig, the entry-the epitaph ", 2006), uniquely identifies the context of registered trademarks-gestures. Then, when the title clearly suggests the recipient same textual nature of the image, almost automatically graphic gestures in particular compositions paratekstualnych are interpreted, associated and read as a special kind of letters, and in full text-as an unknown or unidentified symbols. The entry in the pozawerbalnym language certainly means something specific (means), as well as by its cursive nature, used in the specified anturażu-okolu semantic, in a graphic way, becomes a symbol of the typist (Graphology). Also the person who writes expresses, through gestures, symbols of an unknown letter-writing internal most. Arthur Sanders, in his book "Graphology for advanced" writes: "the main principle of grafologiczną is the ability to use in the analysis of the writings of an informed knowledge of the symbol, also in terms of linear and spatial. The letter is an excellent record of thoughts in a linear manner, that is, from-to, which skillfully combines symbolic reference. Each form of communication is the symbolic communication. Writing any sentence, we cannot at the same time to give all of your thoughts. We can however save after another. On the other hand, every word is nothing but a symbol and you can analyze them symbolically, that is, in all dimension[28]s. " This line of reasoning to move you can basically directly on how the interpretation of both a single gesture, as well as entire strings of gestures. In addition, the already mentioned title eg. "Record-the EPITAPH" suggests that the same, say <tekst>> in the image of a paratekstualnym although the incomprehensible characters (or more for most incomprehensible), and it definitely means something.</tekst> The title with the subtitle suggests the recipient to interpret (read) of the image in terms of the call, and this interpretation also may take place on the symbolic level. In other words, the individual importance of character iconic-graphic gesture, is extended (amended) by the title. Language message makes the graphic gesture can mean (<znaczy>>) more than presents, it becomes part of the <planu treści="">>, suggested the title and actually <znaczy>> more than just that it is a gesture.</znaczy> </planu> </znaczy>





[1] On the base. M. Wallis, art and characters-the writings of semiotic, Warsaw 1983, s. 13.

[2] Cit. by: ibid., s. 13.

[3] JW.

[4] JW., s. 14.

[5] On the base. ibid., s. 14.

[6] JW., s. 16.

[7] Pierre Giraud, l.c.. by: m. Wallis, op. cit., s. 20.

[8] Cit. by: ibid., p. 22.

[9] Cit. by: a. Frutiger, man and his characters, Warsaw 2003, s. 55.

[10] On the base. M. Wallis, art and characters-the writings of semiotic, Warsaw 1983, s. 24.


[11] Cit. by: ibid., s. 37.

[12]JW., s. 39.

[13]JW., s. 43.

[14] E. Cassirer, on the base. M. Wallis, op. cit., s. 56.

[15] Cit. by: ibid., s. 56.

[16]JW., s. 58.

[17] JW.

[18] Cit. by: s. Wysłouch, iconic Character as a sy[w:]mbol. S. Żółkiewski and m. Hopofinger..., s. 132.

[19] U. Eco, semiotic Landscape, Warsaw 1972, s. 163, on the base. S. Wysłouch, op. cit., s. 132.

[20] Cit. by: s. Wysłouch, op. cit., s. 132.

[21]JW., s. 132.

[22] JW., s. 133.

[23] J. Ziomek, l.c.. by: s. Wysłouch, op. cit., s. 133.

[24] JW., s. 133.

[25] JW., s. 135.

[26] JW., s. 136.


[28] Cit. by: a. Wójtowicz, Graphology for advanced, Bytom 2008, s. 10.